Chapter 10 : Psychology
Cognitive Development: the emergence of the ability to think and understand: how the physical world works.
How their minds represent it.
How other minds represent it.
Jean Piaget: created four stages of cognitive development
Piagets stages of cognitive development:
sensorimotor stage: (birth – 2years): infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it.
Schemas: theories about or modles of the way the world works
Assimilation: the process by which infants apply their schemas in novel situations
Accommodation: the process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information
Object Permanence: the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are no visible
Research on the impossible event shows children may learn this earlier than originally proposed
Preoperational stage (2-6 years) children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world.
Concrete operational stage (6-11 years) children learn how various actions or operations can affect or transform concrete objects.
Conservation: the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects appearance.
Formal Operational Stage:
Discovering other minds:
Childhood: the stage of development that begins at about 18-24 months and lasts until adolescence
Egocentrism: the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers; observed during preoperational stage
False belief test (passed at about 4-6 years of age)
Children have difficulty understanding different emotional reactions in others until about 6 years of age
Theory of mind
Children with autism
Discovering our cultures
The ability to learn from others depends on three fundamental skills:
Joint attention: the ability to focus on what another person is focused on
Social referencing: the ability to use another personas reactions as information.