WHAT IS TETANUS AND THE DIFFERENT TYPES?
Tetanus is caused by a type of bacteria called Clostridium tetani that usually live in soil. The bacteria produces a toxin that attaches to nerves around a wound area and is carried inside the nerves to the brain or spinal cord. There are four different types of Tetanus. Generalized Tetanus, Neonatal Tetanus, Local Tetanus and Cephalic Tetanus. Each one is similar to another but is different in their own way.
Types of Tetanus
• Generalized Tetanus
- Most common type of tetanus, representing about 80% of cases.
• Neonatal Tetanus
- Form of generalized tetanus that occurs in newborns.
• Local Tetanus
- Uncommon form of disease. Persistent contraction of muscles in the same anatomic area as the injury.
• Cephalic Tetanus
- Rare form of disease, occasionally occurring with otitis media (ear infections): tetanus is present in the flora of the middle ear.
When having this disease, it can last 3 to 21 days, it can also range from one day to several months depending upon the nature of exposure, The usual incubation period is about 8 days, most cases occur within 14 days. Cases with shorter incubation periods tend to have a more severe disease and a greater risk of death. The further the injury is from the central nervous system, the longer the incubation period is.
Begins with mild spasms in the jaw muscles (lockjaw). It can also affect the chest, neck, back, abdominal muscles and buttocks. Back muscle spasms often cause arching (opisthotonos). Sometimes the spasms can affect muscles that help with breathing, which can lead to breathing problems. Drooling, excessive sweating, fever, hand or foot spasms, irritability, swallowing difficulty, and uncontrolled urination are also all signs of Tetanus.
To prevent getting Tetanus, an immunization of all children is recommended at 2, 4, 6, and 18 months of age followed by a booster dose at 4-6...