The function of the nervous system is to detect changes and communicate with each other. It also controls physical activity, brain function, and metabolic processes. There are two different systems of the nervous system. There is the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
The neuron has dentrites that receive the information from other neurons. The information goes through the cell body. The axon transmits the information away by action potentions. The axon terminal communicates with a muscle cell, a gland cell, or another neuron.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) uses the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is the control center. The spinal cord carries the nerve signals between the body and the brain. The brain interprets the nerve signals and sends responses through the spinal cord.
The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) uses cells that aren’t included in the brain and spinal cord. Some peripheral neurons collect information from the body and transmit it towards the Central Nervous System. These are called afferent neurons. The neurons that transmit the information they collected away from the Central Nervous System are called efferent neurons. There are also two different systems of the PNS. There is the Somatic and the Autonomic Systems. The Autonomic system controls internal conditions. It controls respiration, heartbeat, digestion, and other aspects of homeostasis. The Autonomic has two sub systems too. It has the sympathetic and the parasympathetic systems. The Sympathetic system controls physical or emotional stress. The parasympathetic system controls the internal environment during routine conditions. The Somatic System controls the movement of skeletal muscles. It is a voluntary system. It also can operate without you knowing it, like when you balance.