University of Houston - Downtown
Diabetes Type II
Diabetes II is a global health epidemic and one of the most prevalent, non-communicable diseases. The history of diabetes can be traced back to antiquity where it was initially referenced in Egyptian manuscripts dated 1500 BC. During that time, the disease was solely characterized by excess sugar in an individual’s urine, and prognosis was carried out by determining if ants were attracted to a sample of urine. The actual term diabetes, which means to pass through in Greek, was later coined to signify the excessive passing of urine through the body. While ancient civilizations were aware of the disease, little was known about its causation or effective treatment options. Therefore, diabetes was historically regarded as a death sentence.
In 1910, an English physiologist named Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer discovered that diabetes resulted from the inability of the pancreas to produce insulin, which is the chemical that the body uses to break down sugar. Insulin injection was then used to treat diabetes; however some cases were still unresponsive to this form of treatment. Later, a classification system was developed, which differentiated between insulin-dependent or Type I diabetes and non-insulin dependent or Type II diabetes. According to the World Health Organization, more than 346 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, and this number is projected to double by 2030 (Shrivastava, 2013).
Description of the Disorder
Type II diabetes accounts for 90% of all diabetes cases and is characterized by the body’s ineffective use of insulin, while Type I diabetes is less common and results from a lack of insulin production. According to the American Diabetes Association, there are seven symptoms commonly associated with diabetes, which include frequent urination, excessive thirst, intense hunger, abnormal...