Boatwright: The Romans
Great table explains three roman assemblies. Page 71
Servius Tullius- 6th king of Rome. Creator of the census
Juniore’s- male citizens between 17 and 45 years of age.
Seniore’s-were older than 45
Census- distributed the burdens of war and peace, not individually as before, but according to level of wealth. Tullius then defined classes and centuries. Purpose of census seems strictly militaristic. Population was divided into classes by wealth and equipped accordingly.
First class: Those who had a census of 100,000 asses or more. Formed of eighty centuriae, forty each of seniore’s and juniore’s. Seniore’s were to guard the city, the juniore’s to wage war abroad. Helmet, round shield, breastplate, all of bronze. Equipped with spear and sword.
Second class: instituted for those who had census between 75,000-100,000 asses. Twenty centuriae of both classes. Long rectangular shield instead. Same equipment except for breastplate.
Third class: 50,000 asses. Same distinctions as second class. Greaves were omitted.
Fourth class: 25,000 asses. Same number of centuriae but only equipped with spear and javelin.
Fifth class:Larger and 30 centuriae formed. Only carried sling and stones. Census of fifth class was 11,000 asses.
Proletarri: Remainder of population formed a single centeria and were exempt from military service.
Also formed 12 centuriae of cavalry from leading men of city and then formed an additional 6 centuriae of cavalry.
Adult male roman citizens listened to debates personally and voted openly and directly to elect new leaders every year and were able to approve or reject proposed laws. Also contributed to decisions on war and peace and verdicts in trials.
Only holders of office, consuls, praetors and tribunes of the Plebs possessed the power to summon citizens to meetings to elect new officeholders, discuss matters of importance, and to decide on laws and policies.
Contiones: occasions just for discussion and debate....