Environmental Toxicology Paper
June 2, 2014
Toxicology is the science of poisons or in a more descriptive definition it is "the study of the adverse effects of chemicals or physical agents on living organisms"(NLM, 2014). These adverse effects can range from death to minor changes unnoticed until months or years have passed. These adverse effects can occur in organs, cells, or a particular biochemical. Today due to much research and advanced medical knowledge, we now understand more about how toxicants affect organisms and that certain toxicants can be beneficial at the proper dosage. For example while pharmaceuticals are toxic, at the proper dosage they can be used to treat disease and prolong life (NLM, 2014).
This paper will define toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics and explain their differences. The paper will explain the steps involved in toxicokinetics and explain the routes of exposure for toxicants. Furthermore the paper will explain the various pathways of distribution for toxicants and explain the four principal mechanisms in moving toxicants across the cell membrane, or uptake. The paper will explain what is involved in Phases I and II of biotransformation and what can occur as a result of biotransformation. The paper will identify the environmental effects of toxicants. We will then select a major toxicant and explain the toxicant, source, properties, routes of exposure, distribution, and the uptake of this toxicant across the cell wall or membrane.
Toxicokinetics is the study of how toxins enter the body of an organism and what happens with this toxin after it is inside the body. There are four processes that are involved with toxicokinetics. Absorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion (NLM, 2014).
Absorption is one way a toxin can enter the body. Toxins can enter the body by absorption, ingestion, inhalation,...