UTILATARIANISM IN ETHICS
Utilatarianism is an ethical philosophy in which the happiness of the greatest number of people in the society is considered the greatest good. According to this philosophy, an action is morally right if its consequences lead to happiness (absence of pain), and wrong if it ends in unhappiness (pain). Since the link between actions and their happy or unhappy outcomes depends on the circumstances, no moral principle is absolute or necessary in itself under utilitarianism.
Utilatarianism Proposed by the English philosopher-reformer Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) in his 1789 book Principles Of Morals And Legislation it was developed by the English philosopher-economist John Stuart Mill (1806-73) in his 1863 book Utilitarianism. Bentham’s Formulation of Utilitarianism are firstly, man is under two great masters which is pain and pleasure. Secondly, the great good that we should seek is happiness (a hedonistic perspective). Those actions whose results increase happiness or diminish pain are good. So that, they have “utility.”
There are four theses of Utilitarianism which are the rightness of actions is determined solely by their consequences (Consequentialism), utility is the degree to which an act produces pleasure. Hedonism is the thesis that pleasure or happiness is the good that we seek and that we should seek (Hedonism), a right action produces the greatest good consequences and the least bad (Maximalism) and the consequences to be considered are those of everyone affected, and everyone equally (Universalism)
There are two types of Utilitarianism which are act and rule. Act according to Jeremy Bentham is an action is right if and only if it produces the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for the greatest number. While rule according to John Stuart Mill is an action is right if and only if it conforms to a set of rules the general acceptance of which would produce the greatest balance of pleasure over pain for the greatest...