A Treatise on Government
Book 1, Chapter 9
There are two ways of making money—legitimate and illegitimate.
Despite the fact that there are no limits to acquiring money, but there is a limit to the employment opportunities.
“The uses of every possession are two, both dependent upon the thing itself, but not in the same manner, the one supposing an inseparable connection with it, the other not; as a shoe, for instance, which may be either worn, or exchanged for something else, both these are the uses of the shoe; for he who exchanges a shoe with some man who wants one, for money or provisions, uses the shoe as a shoe, but not according to the original intention, for shoes were not at first made to be exchanged.”
Possessions, such as shoes, are not originally made for bartering, but now there is an inseparable connection with the act of bartering possessions.
“Besides, he who abounds in money often wants necessary food; and it is impossible to say that any person is in good circumstances when with all his possessions he may perish with hunger.”
Food and other resources to survive are the main reason to acquire money.
“…depend upon what a man has, all their care is to get money, and hence arises the other cause for this art; for as this enjoyment is excessive in its degree, they endeavour to procure means proportionate to supply it; and if they cannot do this merely by the art of dealing in money, they will endeavour to do it by other ways, and apply all their powers to a purpose they were not by nature intended for.”
The reason for this art of acquiring money, is because man finds enjoyment in having excessive amounts of it. The man wants more money than he would actually ever need.
“We have now considered that art of money-getting which is not necessary, and have seen in what manner we became in want of it; and also that which is necessary, which is different...