Chapter 1 - Solution (9e)
3. (Misuses of Derivatives) Derivatives can be misused by speculating when one should be hedging, by not having acquired the requisite knowledge to use them properly by acting irresponsibly when using derivatives such as by being overly confident of one’s ability to forecast the direction of the market.
5. (The Role of Derivative Markets) Derivative markets provide a means of adjusting the risk of spot market investments to a more acceptable level and identifying the consensus market beliefs. They make trading easier and less costly and spot markets more efficient. These markets also provide a means of speculating.
7. (Criticisms of Derivatives Markets) On the surface, it may be difficult to distinguish speculation from gambling. Both entail high risk with the expectation of high gain. The major difference that makes speculation somewhat more socially acceptable is that it offers benefits to society not conveyed by gambling. For example, speculators are necessary to assume the risk not wanted by others. In gambling, there is no risk being hedged. Gamblers simply accept risk without there being a concomitant reduction in someone else's risk.
15. (Arbitrage and the Law of One Price) Arbitrage is a type of investment transaction that seeks to profit when identical goods are priced differently. Buying an item at one price and immediately selling it at another is a type of arbitrage. Because of the combined activities of arbitrageurs, identical goods, primarily financial assets, cannot sell for different prices for long. This is the law of one price. Arbitrage helps make our markets efficient by assuring that prices are in line with what they are supposed to be. In short, we cannot get something for nothing. A situation involving two identical goods or portfolios that are not priced equivalently would be exploited by arbitrageurs until their prices were equal. The "one price" that an asset must be is called the “theoretical...