How convincing are Butler’s claims that people have an innate sense of right and wrong. 
Since humans have had the ability to reason and reflect, we have often questioned the difference between man and animal. Butler claims that being human involves being moral, that ‘there is a principle of reflection in man by which they distinguish between approval and disapproval of their own actions…this principle in man…is the conscience”. The conscience controls human nature and is a guide to reach happiness.
Butler claims that human nature is hierarchical in conscience; having 3 tiers applied to it. At the base of the conscience are our desires and impulses: such as the urge for sex and food. This aspect doesn’t involve the reflection of the consequences provided by these actions. In essence, these are known as our ‘animal instincts’. Above this tier is self-love (wanting self-enlightenment) and benevolence (wanting the ell-being of others).This tier shows our ability of compassion for others. And finally, the highest tier is the ‘principle of reflection’. This shows our ability to reflect upon our actions. Butler argues that we are obliged to follow this tier because it given to us by god in order for us to live a happy life. To Christians, this explanation is convincing because they believe that we are born with the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is the spirit of God; the inner part of god within us. Christians believe that the Holy Spirit is pure goodness that drives us to perform righteous actions that brings us closer to our faith. Therefore, Butler’s claims of the highest tier of our conscience the ‘principle of reflection’ is very much convincing due to the link it has with the Holy Spirit.
On the other hand, there is no guarantee that the voice of our conscience comes from God. Freud argues that the idea of Christian conscience frustrates the development of sound mental health by imposing rules and taboos on the individual. These taboos have their basis not...