Cardiovascular Disorders Pathophysiology
Pathology of Cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease is the general name given to all the diseases which can affect the heart and the blood vessels in the body. The main cause involved in the development of the cardiovascular and the coronary heart problems are hypertension and atherosclerosis. Hypertension occurs when the blood pressure rise beyond 160/95 mm Hg. Atherosclerosis is mainly brought about by hypertension and high rate of cigarette smoking (Den Hoed, et al, 2013). Risk factor involves inflammation and oxidation in artery wall which give rise to fatty-fibrous lesions. Inflammation and physical trauma leads to lesion rapture which brings clinical problems such as heart attack, plaque growth or even stroke. Early indicators of heart attack include the inflammatory marker CD40 plus the cardiac myofilament protein called troponin.
There are a number of factors that can lead to heart diseases or cardiovascular. These factors includes; age, gender, cigarette smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, obesity, unhealthy diet, family history among others. In most cases, the risk factors of the heart diseases are mainly contributed by an individual. However, some of the risk factors like age, gender, genetic and family history are immutable.
Age as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor
Age is the far most important risk factor in developing heart diseases or cardiovascular. Coronary fatty streaks can start to develop during the adolescence age and when a person reaches an old age, the risk of getting a stroke doubles. More than eighty percent of people who die as a result of heart diseases are from the age sixty five and above (Strandberg, T., et al , 2013). Serum cholesterol level increases as age increases which increases the rate of getting cardiovascular diseases.
Aging also brings changes in the structural and mechanical properties of the vascular wall. The...