Chain and compass traversing
In traverse surveying the direction of survey lines are fixed by angular measurements.
A traverse survey is one in which the framework is consist of series of connected lines, the lengths and directions of which are measured with a chain or tape and theodolite and compass.
There are two types of traverse.
• Closed traverse
• Open traverse
• CLOSED TRAVERSE:-
A traverse is said to be closed when a complete circuit is made, i.e.when it returns to the starting point forming a closed polygon. It is suitable for locating the boundaries of lakes, ponds, woods, villages, towns, cities etc. and for the survey of moderately large area.
• OPEN TRAVERSE:-
A traverse is said to be open when it does not form a closed polygon. It does not start and end at points whose positions on plan are known. It is most useful for the survey of long narrow strip.
e.g.: valley of river, the cost line, a long meandering road or railway, etc.
When two inclined lines from any direction are interested at station is called angle
It is an angle with respect to some known direction (meridian) i.e. north.
In nature there are four quadrants. I, II, III and IV having four directions north, south, east, and west.
North or upward direction = +ve
South or downward direction = -ve
East or rightward direction = +ve
West or leftward direction = -ve
LATITUDE:- The distance parallel to the north or south direction i.e. north= +ve and south =-ve
DEPARTURE:- The distance parallel to the east and...