chromosome theory of inheritance: inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes, maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation.
20^n-20 amino acids=length of protein
HU and Hi in bac cells contain lots of positively charged amino acids that bind to negatively charged DNA, like histones in eukaryotes and compact DNA.
chromomeres=individual bands, lateral condensations of material along the axis of a chromosomes.
lampbrush chomosome=meiotic chromo, active in directing the metabolic activities of the developing cell. homologs-synapsed pairs with chismata.
chromatin= uncoiled DNA, when its coiled into chomosomes, it condenses 10000 times for each chromatin fibre
C-banding=centromeric regions of mitotic chromosomes took up the stain. heat denatured and then Giemsa stained.
G-banding=digestion of mitotic chromosomes with the proteolytic enzyme trypsin folled by Giesma staining
repetitive DNA=various classes and organisations of repetitive material. majority do not code proteins: heterochromatin in centromere and telomeres, tandem repeats and transposable sequences that are interspersed throughout genome/
satellite DNA=varies in density compared to normal DNA, not in prokarotyes. highly repetitive DNA, differs from DNA in molecular composition. heterochromatin centromeric regions
Centromeric DNA sequences= essential for seperation of homologs, binds to kinetochore that boinds to spindle fiber durig division.
telomeric DNA sequences: maintain stability of chromosomes. renders chromo ends inert in interactions with other ends and enzymes. TTAGGGG is common.
MIddle Repetitive Sequences: VNTRS and STRs=no function. variable number tandem repeats-minisatellites, DNA fingerprinting. short tandem repeats-microsatellites useful molecular markers for genome analysis.
REpetitive Transposed Sequences: SINEs and LINEs=interspersed individuall rather than tandem repears. transposable=mobile can...