Theorist proposed many different perspective theories to help us understand the cognitive, social, physical and emotional development of children. These theories may influence how we interact, educate or how we might raise our children. There are similarities and differences between these theories. Some of these theories expressed how children change and grow in stages and others suggested development as incessant. Most of these theories also mentioned how children and their environment can affected one another “bidirectional.” To help children reach their full potential, we must understand their cognitive, physical and emotional development and get involved with our children and their activities.
Three Theories and Their Concepts
Sigmund Freud and Erickson presented us with the psychoanalytic theories. According to Sigmund Freud, development is affected primary by our unconscious mind and its conflicts and these conflicts take place in stages of the psychosexual development. He believed that personality is made up of three components: id, ego, and superego. The id is the first, inexperienced, most natural part of behavior. When we are first born, the id is in charge of our personality. We have basic needs and urges such as: food, sleep, shelter, sex etc. that need to be pleased immediately. For example, a baby is crying because he is hungry and he will not stop until you give him milk. He has no self control and knows no consequences. As he gets older, his ego sets in. Reality is taking into account at this point. He is hungry, but he starts thinking about ways to get food. “I can beg, steal, hunt… for food.” Finally he grows a little bit older and he can start to reason with his choices. Morality sets in and he can make the right choice. This is the superego.
Erik Erickson theory of psychosocial development is somewhat different from Freud’s theory. He believed that a child development stage...