Cardio Pulmonary Exam 1
1. Anatomy of the Heart
a. Pericardium - surrounds the heart to provide protection and support
i. Visceral Pericardial layer – inner serosal layer adheres to external wall of the heart. The visceral pericardium reflects back on itself and lines the outer fibrous layer, forming the parietal pericardium.
b. Myocardium – cardiac muscle, thickiest layer of the heart and consist of cardiac muscle cells
c. Endocardium – the surface of the heart valves and interior surface of the chambers are lined by a single layer of epithelial cells
d. Heart has 4 Chambers
i. Two Atria – this is the receiving chamber
ii. Two Ventricles – this is the pumping chambers
e. Cordae Tendanae
2. Blood Flow through heart
a. Deoxygenated blood is delivered to the heart from the systemic circulation through the inferior and superior vena cava, which enters into the right atrium. The flow continues into the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle contracts and the blood will go across the pulmonic valve to the pulmonary artery and lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed. The oxygen rich blood returns to the heart from the pulmonary circuit through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium and then passes across the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Contraction of the left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood across the aortic valve into the aorta, from which it is distributed to all other tissues of the body.
3. Branches if the Cardiovascular System
a. Systemic – carries blood throughout the body to meet the body’s needs and remove waste products
i. Includes arteries, veins, and capillaries
ii. Works with lymphatic system
b. Pulmonary – carries blood to and from the blood for gas exchange
4. Contraction/ What they are and What they do
a. Myocardial Cell - contain only one to two centrally located nuclei, with a rich capillary network supply.
b. Sarcolema - myocardial cell plasma...