Down syndrome is also known as trisomy 21. Down syndrome is named after John Langdon Down, the British physician who described the syndrome in 1866. The condition was clinically described earlier by Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol in 1838 and Edouard Seguin in 1844. Down syndrome was identified as a chromosome 21 trisomy by Dr. Jérôme Lejeune in 1959. Down syndrome can be identified in a new-born by direct observation or in a foetus by prenatal screening. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. Down syndrome is the most common chromosome abnormality in humans. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, a particular set of facial characteristics and a severe degree of intellectual disability.
Some common effects of Down syndrome may be present at birth others may not be evident until adulthood. Some common effects of Down syndrome are as follows; Thyroid problems. Your thyroid is a small gland located in the lower part of your neck. The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. The thyroid problems are as follows; the child could have an underactive thyroid, an overactive thyroid, an enlarged thyroid, lumps in the thyroid gland and inflammation of the thyroid. Another common effect that a Down syndrome child could have, would be hearing problems, this could mean that the person is slightly impaired or even fully. A child with Down syndrome could possibly have congenital heart disease; this can be a number of different problems affecting the heart. Congenital conditions are present at birth. These conditions can be inherited or caused by environmental factors. Congenital heart disease is often divided into two types: cyanotic which is a blue skin colour caused by a lack of oxygen and the other is non-cyanotic. Language is often delayed or impaired in children...