Fostering Critical Thinking
I. Critical thinking suggests thinking beyond.
A. Various definitions are associated with critical thinking.
B. Critical thinking possesses many characteristics.
1. A question raised can invoke critical thinking.
2. A discovered problem should be defined.
3. Evidences are given careful examinations.
4. Analyses of assumptions and biases add to the certainty of the result.
5. Emotional reasoning is highly discouraged.
6. Oversimplification gives no ideal result.
7. Other interpretations should be considered, too.
8. Ambiguity also takes its part to proliferate thinking beyond.
C. Approaches to teaching thinking skills are generally organized around four basic elements.
1. Basic processes are the fundamental components or tools of thinking.
a. The problem should be perceived and recognized.
b. Data have to be gathered and stored.
c. Accumulated data will then be organized and transformed for clearer bases.
d. Reasoning skills then are applied which lead to formation of conclusions.
e. Conclusions are to be assessed based on observations.
2. Domain-specific knowledge is the content in a given area on which a person focuses thinking skills.
3. Attitudes and dispositions are an essential element of critical thinking, influencing how and when thinking skills will be used.
a. One has to be inquisitive.
b. An open mind has to be set.
c. A person has to be systematic.
d. An analytic character has to be professed.
e. Truth seekers are critical thinkers.
f. Self-confidence has to be developed.
g. A mature mind is expected.
4. Metacognition means that the learner knows when to use the different basic processes, how they relate to domain-specific knowledge, and why they are used.
II. An efficient and effective teacher fosters critical thinking in his/her students.
A. There are reasons why teach critical thinking.
1. Students score poorly on tests that require thinking.
2. Business leaders believe that high school...