The belief that modernisation would lead to an increase in secularisation has been unfounded:
Led to a deep sense of alienation and and stimulated a search for an identity/ an anchor.
Global consumerist culture led to an awareness of relative deprivation which people believe they can deal with more effectively as a group.
Rapid changes and dislocations have led, esp in the 3rd world to a desire to resist the “ decadent culture of the west).
Has also been fuelled by political changes:
Fall of communism led to a temporary vacuum which religious fundamentalism grew to fill.
Egs: Israel/ Palestine.
Soviet occupied Afghanistan: US backed Islamic fundamentalist Mujahadeen.
1965 Indonesia: Bloody Coup wiping out the communist alternative and leading to a tremendous growth of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia.
1988: Pat Robertson
1992/ 1996/ 2000: Pat Buchannan…. Unsuccessful Presidential candidates in the US.
1995: Yigal Amir assassinated the then Israeli prime minister Yitzak Rabin ( he negotiated with Arafat the PLO leader to give self govt , hence rediucing the size of god given state of israel.
1948: Matatma Gandhi was assassinated for bifurcating the nationl
Rooted in the failed promise of modernity/ reactive to the unwelcome manifestation of modernity , such as declining morals.
Seek to alter the socio political realities
Use religious scriptures to challenge secular rulers and propose a program for radical reform
Properly applicable only to fundamentalist Christians, Jews and Moslems.
Hindus and Buddhist fundamentalists
These groups are not defined by their absolutistic insistence on the veracity of God’s will
Rooted in a desire to recapture elements of national identity
"Cromwell at Dunbar", Andrew Carrick Gow.
Charles II landed in Scotland at Garmouth in Morayshire on 23 June 1650 and signed the 1638 National Covenant and the 1643 Solemn League and Covenant immediately after coming ashore. With his original...