(i) Give an account of the key features of the cosmological argument for the existence of god
(ii) To what extent is this a weak argument
The cosmological argument tries to prove the existence of God of classical theism. It is a non-propositional argument so it cannot be proven but can be argued by offering experience as support. Also this argument is a posteriori argument, meaning that it is based on our experience of the world around us. The Kalem is a version of the Cosmological Argument coming from the Islamic tradition; it rejects the idea of an infinite universe, since as time is always being added on time cannot be infinite. It is pre-dated work from Aquinas, saying everything in the world needs a cause to exist. The Kalem argument goes on to say that if the universe is infinite then it must have been created by a being outside of the universe because if there was no natural the world couldn’t have been created naturally meaning the external being must have created the world.
Aquinas had 5 ways which is in his book ‘summa theologica’, this establishes the argument as we know it. These 5 ways, Aquinas said proved God, 3 of them are cosmological; the Prime Mover Argument, the Cause Argument, and the Argument from Contingency.
The first Aquinas talked about was motion which could be referred to as ‘change of state’ or ‘potentiality’ to ‘actuality’, just like something going from lift to right that is a ‘change of state’. Aquinas argued that nothing can be moved unless it is moved by something else, which means everything must have a mover. However there cannot be an infinite regress of movements meaning there must be a Prime Mover because it doesn’t need anything else to move it, Aquinas called this mover the God of classical theism.
The Cause Argument is concerned with the fact that all things have a cause, and if we trace back the chain of causes, there must be an initial cause which began everything else. People take this uncaused cause to be...