Chapter 2. Foundations
of Individual Behaviour
Ability physical and intellectual,
Learning and theories of learning,
Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A., & Vohra, N (2012). Organizational Behavior, 14th
Edition, New Delhi: Pearson Education.
Chapter Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
– Contrast the two types of ability.
– Define intellectual ability and demonstrate its relevance
– Identify the key biographical characteristics and
describe how they are relevant to OB.
– Define learning and outline the principles of the three
major theories of learning.
– Define shaping, and show how it can be used in OB.
– Show how culture affects our understanding of
intellectual abilities, biographical characteristics, and
An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a
Made up of two sets of factors:
– Intellectual Abilities
• The abilities needed to perform mental activities.
• General Mental Ability (GMA) is a measure of overall
• Wonderlic Personnel Test: a quick measure of
intelligence for recruitment screening.
• No correlation between intelligence and job satisfaction.
– Physical Abilities
• The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity,
strength, and similar characteristics.
Dimensions of Intellectual Ability
Nine Basic Physical Abilities
– Extent flexibility
– Dynamic flexibility
– Body coordination