This art of painting developed as a blending of Persian and Indian ideas. There was already a Muslim tradition of miniature painting under the Sultanate of Delhi, which the Mughals overthrew. Although the first surviving manuscripts are from Mandu in the years either side of 1500, there were very likely earlier ones which are either lost, or perhaps now attributed to southern Persia, as later manuscripts can be hard to distinguish from these by style alone, and some remain the subject of debate among specialists. By the time of the Mughal invasion, the tradition had abandoned the high viewpoint typical of the Persian style, and adopted a more realistic style for animals and plants.
Benin art is the art from the Kingdom of Benin or Edo Empire, a pre-colonial African state located in what is now known as the South-South region of Nigeria. Primarily made of cast bronze and carved ivory, Benin art was produced mainly for the court of the Oba of Benin - a divine ruler for whom the craftsmen produced a range of ceremonially significant objects. The full complexity of these works can be appreciated only through the awareness and consideration of two complementary cultural perceptions of the art of Benin: the Western appreciation of them primarily as works of art, and their understanding in Benin as historical documents and as mnemonic devices to reconstruct history, or as ritual objects. This original significance is of great import in Benin.
During the Ming dynasty, Chinese art developed greatly from the achievements in painted art during the earlier Song dynasty and Yuan dynasty. The art techniques, which were invented and developed before the Ming period, became classical during this period. More colors were used in art during the Ming dynasty. Seal brown became much more widely used, and even over-used during this period. Many new art skills/techniques were innovated and developed; calligraphy was much more closely and perfectly...