Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory
V. R. Alwal, S. R. Bagdure, M. R. Kemkar.
Abstract- MRAM, the new breed of semiconductor memory uses magnetic properties to store data. This new kind of chip will compete with other established forms of semiconductor memories such as Flash memory and random access memory (RAM). Most engineers believe that the technology called magnetoresistive random - access memory (MRAM) could reduce the cost and power consumption of electronics for cell phones, music players, laptops and servers.
The feature, that makes MRAM an alluring alternative to other forms of semiconductor memories, is the way it stores data. For example, flash memory and random-access memory (RAM) hold information as electric charge. In contrast, MRAM uses the magnetic orientation of electrons to represent bits. Using MRAM, reading and writing of data can be done unlimitedly with in nanoseconds. MRAM can also hold the data with out a power supply.
MRAM has the potential to become a universal memory technology, with the high speed of SRAM, the nonvolatility of flash memory (but with much greater write-erase endurance than flash memory), and with storage densities that could approach those of DRAM. MRAM is embeddable in conventional CMOS processes with as few as four additional masks. We briefly review early MRAM technologies such as anisotropic MRAM, spin valve MRAM, and pseudo spin valve MRAM.
In 1984 Drs. Arthur Pohm and Jim Daughton, both employed at that time by Honeywell, conceived of a new class of magnetoresistance memory devices which offered promise for high density, random access, nonvolatile memory. In 1989 Dr. Daughton left Honeywell to form Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc. having entered into a license agreement allowing him to sublicense Honeywell MRAM technology for commercial applications. Dr. Pohm, Dr. Daughton, and others at NVE continued to improve basic MRAM technology, and innovated new...