Port MORESBY INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL |
HISTORY: AFRICA STUDIES: GHANA AND MOZAMBIQUE |
What were the major challenges facing the new countries? Particular emphasis should be given to leadership issues, conflicts with neighbours, social and religious issues and separatists movements. |
Marlunn Oducayen |
Africa was a continent colonized by European powers during the progression of the 19th century and the early parts of the 20th century. When decolonization took place roughly around the mid 20th century and beyond, countries such as Ghana and Mozambique emerged. We will look at the major challenges faced by these new countries, where particular emphasis would go to leadership issues, conflicts with neighbouring countries, social and religious issues and separatists movements.
Ghana (also called the Gold Coast) was a colony of the United Kingdom. Prior to that, Ghana was ruled by the Asante. The Asante’s rule had the most cohesive history and exercised the greatest influence in the region. Ghana is rich in natural resources and minerals such as rubber and cocoa and of course gold, hence the name of Gold Coast. However, during colonial period, exploitation of these resources and the natives of Ghana were widespread among the cocoa producers and Gold Industry. There were nationalist movements early in the colonial rule by the people of Ghana specifically by those of the Western-educated elite. Nationalistic movements became most rampant after WWII led by figures such as JB Danquah and most notably Kwame Nkrumah. It took well over a decade after the Second World War until Ghana had gained independence in 1957 through the CPP’s (Convention People’s Party) efforts led by Kwame Nkrumah, leader of the independent Ghana.
Mozambique (also called Portuguese East Africa) was colonized by Portugal in 1891. Before Portuguese arrival, Mozambique was an agricultural region. Mozambique is a vast coastal territory that was ruled by many local...