The Process of controlling
Control is one of the most important managerial functions like planning, staffing and directing. Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that the organizational objectives and the plans derived to them are being accomplished. The basic control process in management is concerned with establishing standards, measuring actual performance against these standards and taking actions to correct the variations from standards and plans.
Controlling is directly related to planning because controlling looks at and ensures whether plans are properly implemented or not. The managers observe what currently happens within an organization and compare these with what was supposed to happen. They focus on correcting below standard situations and bring the results up to the expectations. Setting plans and controlling the standards include almost all managerial area within an organization like time controls, material and equipment control, cost and budgetary control, financial control and operational control.
Setting up standards
As plans are the yardsticks against which a manager has to control, the first step in the control system is to establish certain standards and plans. However, since plans vary in detail and since a manager cannot usually watch everything, special standards are established. Standards are, by definition, criteria of performance. Standards are usually expressed in number and it can be set for quality, quantity and time measures. Standards form as turning points in an entire planning program at which measure of performance can be made so that mangers can receive signal about how things are going and thus do not have to watch each and every step in the execution of plans.
Measurement of performance
Even though such measurement is not always practicable within an organization, the measurement of performance against standards must ideally be done on a forward-looking...