- Submitted By: michellecosta
- Date Submitted: 03/21/2011 2:50 AM
- Category: Science
- Words: 1436
- Page: 6
- Views: 430

AOS 1 (40%): Motion in One and Two Dimensions

Explain motion in terms of Newton’s model & assumptions including;

Graphical description of motion: displacement-, velocity-, & acceleration-, time graphs.

For displacement-time (x-t) graphs; velocity (v) = gradient

For velocity-time (v-t) graphs; displacement (x) = area, acceleration (a) = gradient

For acceleration-time (a-t) graphs; velocity (v) = area

Algebraic description of motion: constant acceleration equations of motion.

v = u + a t x = displacement, v = instantaneous velocity = x/t

x = ½(u + v)t u = initial velocity, vav =average velocity = ½(u + v)

x = ut + ½at2 v = final velocity, v = change in velocity = (v – u)

x = vt – ½at2 a = acceleration = v/t = vav /t ,

v2 = u2 + 2ax t = time interval of constant acceleration, t = time interval of change

N1: “A body continues in its state of rest or constant motion unless acted on by a net external force”

Iff F = 0, v=0. If and only if no net external force acts on an object then its velocity will not change

N2: “The net external force changes the velocity of an object in proportion to its mass”

F = ma = p/t. The net force on an object is proportional to its rate of change of momentum

N3: “Every action has an equal & opposite reaction”

FAB = -FBA. The force of an object on another is equal & opposite to the force of the second onto the first

Newton’s Laws assume that physical quantities such as mass, time, & distance are absolute quantities. This means that their values did not change whatever the frame of reference.

Apply Newton’s laws to situations with a few forces in one & two dimensions

F = F1 + F2 , for two forces acting on an object (or system)

Use N1 to determine if an object is in equilibrium (F = 0), if so a=0, & e.g., F1 = -F2., if not use N2

Use N2 to relate force, mass, acceleration (changes in velocity), changes in momentum and time

Use N3 only to find the forces of one object on another...

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