Commonly used Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete
OPC was first patented by Joseph Aspdin in 1824. Generally, OPC is one of the most conventional construction materials, as well as, the most widely used cement for a broad range of applications in the construction industry, building, ready-mix, precast and concrete product manufacturing industries today. OPC is hydraulic cement composed of lime, silica, alumina and iron. Hydraulic cements are the binding agents in concretes and majority mortars and thus, common and critically significant construction materials. The term hydraulic refers to cement’s ability to set and harden under, or with excess, water through the hydration of the cement’s constituent chemical compounds or minerals. While concrete is basically formed by a proportioned mix of hydraulic cement, water, fine and coarse aggregates, air, and sometimes additives through hydration, and caused progressive hardening of concrete which gives the concrete its high strength. After curing, concrete hardens into a rock-like solid mass. (Hendrik G, 2005)
With accordance to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard C-150, there are similar varieties of Portland cement available which include:
• Type I: Ordinary Portland Cement for general use.
• Type II: OPC exhibiting moderate sulfate resistance and moderate heat of hydration.
• Type III: Portland cement having high early strength.
• Type IV: Portland cement having a low heat of hydration.
• Type V: Portland cement having high sulfate resistance.
The great amount of OPC production and consumption relates to the advantages OPC concrete can offer to the construction industry. Lin Z.J (2010) shared that OPC is most inexpensive and the most readily available material. The cost of production of concrete is low compared with other engineered construction materials as compared to steel, plastic and polymer. This enables concrete to be locally produced anywhere in the...