A smile is a language that even a baby understands. However, as adults it is very important that we understand the biology and the normal flora of our mouth; so that we can maintain that "million dollar smile". Improper oral hygiene over time can cause periodontal disease, which is a disease caused by plaque that is formed from harmful bacteria in our mouth. Our mouth is full of harmful and non - harmful bacteria. However, an increase in the bacteria quantity of the oral cavity cause the harmless bacteria to become disease causing bacteria. When there is too much harmful bacteria it develops to form a sticky film called plaque. When plaque is allowed to remain in the periodontal area, it becomes calculus or what we commonly know as tartar. This material on the tooth has a rock like consistency and forms on the surface of the tooth and becomes difficult to remove. Over time the bacteria cause inflammation of the gums which is called gingivitis. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis which means inflammation around the tooth. In periodontitis, gums pull away from the teeth and form spaces called pockets that become infected. When this occurs the body’s immune system fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line. Bacterial toxins and the body's natural response to infection start to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. If not treated, the bones, gums, and tissue that support the teeth are destroyed. The teeth may eventually become loose and have to be removed. Therefore, it is vital to maintain a regular cleaning routine and understand the risks that may cause periodontal disease for prevention.