Introduction International trade continues to become an important procedure between countries and a huge portion of this trade is done on the sea. Marine shipping has had a local and global impact on port cities worldwide because it is one of the most efficient methods of transporting cargo and freight. Intensive marine shipping has caused greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to increase causing a dramatic increase in temperature (Wang & Wang, 2010). Local port cities are greatly affected by this but as GHG emissions from ships steadily increase it becomes a global issue. Also, taking a more environmental and resources studies approach, marine shipping has caused the spread of exotic invasive species from one country to another. This occurs on the hulls of ships or in the ships’ ballast water (MacPhee, 2006). Invasive species, as well as the increase of greenhouse gases contribute to a loss of biodiversity in aquatic systems (MacPhee, 2006). These problems need to be addressed as 21 out of the 33 mega-cities are coastal (Ashpole, S. 2011, Fall semester. Introduction to Environmental Studies, 195. Class Lecture. University of Waterloo) and the ecosystems surrounding them will be greatly damaged.
This paper will be largely focused on comparing the amount of GHG emissions released by sea vessels in two of the major port cities of Eastern and Pacific Asia: Hong Kong and Singapore. This will show how the GHG emissions from these cities contribute to local and global pollution. This paper will also discuss how the invasion of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) has been carried across oceans by ships (MacPhee, 2006). This invasive species has a negative impact on both local and global zones, and is seen as one of the worst invasive species in history. (MacPhee, 2006)
Port Cities’ Shipping and Pollution
Worldwide, trade is rapidly increasing and the...