Truth Rule Confirmed, Now what?
-Essences of material things discovered by abstracting from sense-perception
-Essences of material things discovered by examining ideas of them
The Essence of Matter: Extension
Descartes does not yet know that matter exists.
He does claim to know:
-Matter, if it exists, must have extension.
-Matter, if it exists, is governed by math.
Ontological Argument for God’s Existence
I clearly and distinctly perceive that extension is sepearable from matter. Therefor, extension is inseperable from matter.
I clearly and distinctly perceive that existence is inseparable from God. Therefore, existence is inseperable from God.
Probable Argument for the Existence of the Body
-Thought does not depend on the imagination
-Therefor, thought can exist without the imagination.
-Then what is the source of imagination? Probably the body.
Rewview of Beliefs About Senses and Reasons for Doubt
1. I have a body.
2. The existence and properties of external objects
3. The resemblance thesis:qualities we experience resemble qualities in objects
4. The “teachings of nature” to eat when hungry, drink when thirsty
General reasons for doubt:
-Defective Design (X)
Reason to doubt #4
-Phantom Limb syndrome
Argument for Substance Dualism about the Mind and Body
1. Definitioni of substance: something able to exist on its own
2. Truth rule: cleary and distinctly perceived ideas accurately reflect reality (clear and distinct perception, meaning intellectual ideas to you)
3. Mind and body can be clearly ad distinctly separated in thought.
4. Therefore mind and body can exist on their own
5. Therefore, mind and body are distinct substances.
6. Furthermore, by the truth rule, the essence of mind thought and of body extension
The Existence of Material Objects
Causal principle: The cause...