There are a range of components and pieces of web architecture which enable internet and website functionality, Firstly the ISP (internet service provider) is the company that provides the user with the internet connection and enables the user to access it. Examples of ISP’s in the UK, which all provide different features, would be TalkTalk, Sky and Virgin Media. The World Wide Web is contained within the internet and is the start of a web address (www.). To view websites through the World Wide Web a web browser is required such as Google Chrome or Internet explorer.
For websites to be used and accessed they must be stored on a web server by a web hosting service, many of these have different features such as; some are free and are supported by advertisements, some are paid for and use the pooled resources of the server such as RAM and CPU power, also a user can get his own web server and will be in full control of the server from security to administration.
All websites on the internet are part of a domain, those sharing part of an address or URL are said to be in the same domain, for example; with www.example.org, .org is the domain. Domain names are organised by level, top level domains are well known such as .COM, .NET and .ORG. All information in a domain is usually stored centrally on one server which decides the passwords, logins and preferences of the entire domain. The allocation of domain names is governed by a company called ICANN (The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). Domain names are obtained from domain Registrars who are authorised by ICANN to assign and sell domains, www.ja.net or (JANET) is responsible for assigning the ac.uk domain.
For computers to be able to communicate with each other over the internet they need a common language, this is TCP/IP, a suit of protocols that turns data into packets (blocks of information sent over the internet). TCP/IP is used because of its flexibility and...