Introduction to Psychology Worksheet
Part I: Origins of Psychology
There are many perspectives within psychology and one of them is the psychodynamic which postulates that the entire human have instincts to satisfy their basic needs and these satisfactions produces pleasure and leads to the development of sexual drives. The leading theorist was Sigmund Freud. Another is the behavioral perspective and it postulates that learning is a change of behavior brought about by the consequences of behaviors, and two prominent behaviorists were John Watson and Ivan Pavlov. The third one is the humanistic perspective, also known as ‘the third force', and was a reaction to psychodynamic and behaviorism theories. It is focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice, and the primary proponents were Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.( Hockenbury, 2014).
Part II: Research Methods
One of the most research methods used by psychologists is the Causal Research, this method investigate the effect of one or more variable on one or more outcome variables. It is a scientific experimentation based on cause and effect. It is a scientific method and is a standardized way of making observations, gathering data, forming hypotheses, testing predictions, and interpreting results. Another research method is the Descriptive Research who seeks to depict what already exists in a group. This type of studies does not seek to measure the effect of a variable but seek to describe. Using these methods, researchers can describe different events, experiences, or behaviors and look for links between them. However, these methods do not enable researchers to determine causes of behavior. In the other hand, the Relational Research is a study that investigates the connection between two or more variables. The variables that are compared are generally already present in the group (Rosenthal, 2008).
Part III: Ethics in Research...