HNC Health Care B
Psychology and Sociology in Health Care
Submission Date: 05/11/2008
This essay will explain two psychological theories of individual development – Psycho-social theory and the behavioural theory and will discuss how these can be used to understand the health of an individual with the mental health disorder of anorexia nervosa.
Psyco-social theory was proposed in 1959 by Erik Erikson (1902- 1994). Erikson trained as a psychoanalyst under the supervision of Sigmund Freud’s daughter - Anna Freud and recognised the basics of the Freudian theory, i.e. the structure of the personality (id ego, superego). He also recognised the psychosexual stages of development (Gross et al., 2000). They both believed that humans develop in stages. Freud believed that our personality is shaped by the age of five whereas Erikson believed that humans develop throughout their lifespan. Erikson also thought that social and cultural factors have a huge influence in the way humans behave and develop in life. Erickson developed eight psychosocial stages and he regarded each stage as “psychosocial crisis” (eight ages of man).
Stage 1 – Trust V Mistrust (Infancy) (Hope): If a child is nurtured well it will develop trust in themselves and others and will view the world as manageable, if not a child is not well handled and feels rejection the child will become insecure and mistrustful. A healthy balance of trust/mistrust will allow the child to take risks and will not be to let down by disappointments that will occur during this time.
Stage 2 – Autonomy V Doubt (Toddler hood) (Will): As a toddler they begin to have some independence and are able to make some decisions of their own which leads to confidence (autonomy) but if they come across to much criticism it can lead to low self-esteem, shame and doubt.
Stage 3 – Initiative V Guilt (Pre-school Age) (Purpose): At this stage the child is...