Social effects of Industrial Revolution
Reena Wilson, MSU
Let me now explain some of the social effects of Industrial Revolution
➢ Factories and urbanisation:-
Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. The factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of employment in the factories. Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers. Housing was provided for workers on site.
➢ Child labour:-
The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase, but the chance of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the industrial revolution (although infant mortality rates were reduced markedly) There was still limited opportunity for education, and children were expected to work. . Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders. Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines and textile factories and these helped to popularise the children's plight. Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law, but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour.
In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in England, wherein Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law. About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. These laws decreased the number of...