"Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein |
Albert Einstein in 1921 |
Born | 14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire |
Died | 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States |
Residence | Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United States |
Ethnicity | Jewish |
Citizenship | * Württemberg/Germany (until 1896) * Stateless (1896–1901) * Switzerland (from 1901) * Austria (1911–12) * Germany (1914–33) * United States (from 1940) |
Alma mater | * ETH Zurich * University of Zurich |
Known for | * General relativity and special relativity * Photoelectric effect * Mass-energy equivalence * Quantification of the Brownian motion * Einstein field equations * Bose–Einstein statistics * Unified Field Theory |
Spouse | * Mileva Marić (1903–1919) * Elsa Löwenthal, née Einstein, (1919–1936) |
Awards | * Nobel Prize in Physics (1921) * Copley Medal (1925) * Max Planck Medal (1929) * Time Person of the Century |
Albert Einstein ( /ˈælbərt ˈaɪnstaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. He received the 1921Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". The latter was pivotal in establishingquantum theory within physics.
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of theelectromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of...