The Legacy of Ancient Rome and Greece
I. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
Government: a system for controlling the society.
Monarchy: A single person called a king or monarch ruling in the government.
Aristocracy: a government ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families.
Oligarchy: a government ruled by a few people.
Democracy: a government ruled by the people.
A. Building Democracy
1. Athens – citizens participated in government decision makings.
2. Citizens were adult males, enjoyed certain rights
a. Assembly would pick three nobles to rule city-state.
3. Around 600 B.C., Athens suffered economic problems.
a. Farmers pledged crops, then land, then themselves.
B. Reforms of Solon
1. In 549 B.C., Solon passed law outlawing slavery based off debt.
a. Enabled Athens to avoid revolution or civil war.
2. Established four classes of citizenship based on wealth.
3. Lowest class citizens could vote in assembly.
4. Free adult males were citizens.
5. Introduced legal concept: any citizen can bring charges against wrongdoers.
6. Increased participation in government, but limited.
a. Citizens could participate only – 1/10 of population
b. Denied citizenship to women, slaves, foreign residents.
c. Slaves formed 1/3 of Athenian population.
C. Cleisthenes Enacts More Reforms
1. In 508 B.C., Cleisthenes made more reforms..
a. Regoranizing assembly to balance power between poor and rich.
b. Allowed citizens to submit laws for debate and passage.
c. Increased council to 500.
2. Council members were chosen randomly.
3. 1/5 of Athenian residents were citizens....