There have been many creatures alive at the same time who are closely related to one another and closely related to us. One of these species is Homo Neanderthalensis. A group of late archaic humans from Europe, the Near East, and central Asia that immediately preceded the first modern humans in those regions. The Neanderthals are included by some within the species Homo sapiens, recognizing their close affinities to modern humans; others place them in their own species, Homo neanderthalensis, emphasizing the differences between them and modern humans. “The first recognized Neanderthal remains were found in the Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, Germany, in 1856. Since then the remains of several hundred Neanderthals have been discovered. Since the Neanderthals were the first humans to bury their dead, a number of largely complete skeletons are preserved, providing detailed knowledge of their biology. In the early twentieth century, when Neanderthals were the only archaic humans known, they were reconstructed as semihuman, dull-witted, and brutish. Hence their popular image was that of the archetypical cavemen.” (encyclopedia.com). They are now recognized as relatively recent members of the human lineage; they lived between about 125,000 and 36,000 years ago as compared with earlier members of the genus Homo who extend back more than 2 million years. The Neanderthals share many features with modern humans both anatomically and behaviorally. Yet, a number of important contrasts between them and more recent humans are recognized. Physically, the Neanderthals were about the same height as most modern humans, on the average 5 ft 5 in. but they were much more heavily built. “They had heavy necks, broad and muscular shoulders, and extremely
muscular arms, hands, and legs. Estimates of their strength show them to have been about as strong as very athletic modern humans. Their leg bones show a marked thickening of their shafts, which is indicative of...