BIG IDEA Pg. 375
World War I brought far-reaching changes to the United States. Although many people enlisted in the army, the government instituted a draft to increase the number of combat troops. This created job vacancies and new opportunities for women and minorities. Many African Americans and Mexican Americans migrated north to work in factories, and women also took industrial jobs. Mexicans migrated to the United States to fill agricultural jobs in the Southwest. Government agencies facilitated cooperation between government and big business, rationed food and fuel, and sold bonds to raise money for the war. To ensure support for the war, Congress passed- and the Supreme Court upheld-laws restricting antiwar activities and certain civil liberties. The Supreme Court upheld limitations on free speech that threatened the safety of citizens or hindered the war effort.
BIG IDEA Pg. 390
World War I changed the nature of combat. Soldiers faced trench warfare, poison gas, and tanks and airplanes in battle. Even before the end of the war, President Wilson had proposed a plan known as the Fourteen Points. The leaders of the victorious countries considered this plan known as the Fourteen Points. The leaders of the victorious countries considered this plan too lenient toward Germany and instead approved the Treaty of Versailles. The treaty stripped Germany of its armed forces and required the country to pay heavy reparations. The treaty also dissolved four empires-Russia, the Ottoman Empire, the German Empire, and Austria Hungary-and created nine new countries. While the treaty of Versailles did call for the creation of the League of Nations, the United States never joined, because Congress refused to approve.