4000 BC m;nk
The Egyptians used yeast to make bread and wine.
The Sumerians brew beer.
The Aztecs make cakes from Spirulina algae.
The term ‘genetic engineering’ is first used.
The first genetic engineering experiment is conducted by inserting a gene from the African clawed toad into bacterial DNA
Louise brown, the world’s first ‘test tube’ baby is born through in vitro fertilisation.
DNA fingerprinting is first used in a criminal investigation.
New Zealand wine growers isolate and use an altered yeast to make wines from high-acid grapes.
The first human gene therapy trial is performed on a four-year-old girl with an immune disorder.
Chymosin, an enzyme used in cheese making, becomes the first product of genetic engineering to be introduced into the food supply.
Techniques for testing embryos for inherited diseases such as cystic fibrosis are developed.
The first successful xenotransplantation trial is conducted, transplanting a heart from a genetically engineered pig into a baboon.
‘Dolly’ the sheep is cloned from a cell from an adult sheep.
First commercial introduction of a ‘gene chip’ designed to rapidly detect variances in the HIV virus and select the best drug treatment for patients.
The first trial of gene therapy for a neurology disorder is conducted in New Zealand.
New Zealand researches develop the first genetically engineered radiate pine in the laboratory.
A US company announces successful cloning of human embryonic cells from an adult skin cell.
Chinese scientists clone a giant panda embryo