8.2. Case Study: Sudan/Darfur
8.2.1 Description of country: Sudan-Darfur
Darfur is a region located in the Western region of Sudan, with an estimated population of 6 million prior to the conflict that broke out in 2003/2004. Sudan has always suffered tensions mainly between Arabs and Africans and between Christians and Muslims (Euromove, 2008). Specifically, in Darfur, the clashes have always been centered on land disputes and the rights of the farmers living in the area (BBC , 2010). The instability that Sudan has suffered for years because of the wars that transpired in the surrounding bordering countries, namely Chad, Sudan and Liby and two civil wars that took place after its independence in 1956, led to a famine that was the catalyst of the current conflict in Darfur in 2003 (CIA World Fact book, 2012). It all started early in 2003, when the Janjaweed (Arab militia) supported by the government launched an attack on the people of Darfur, blaming it on two rebel movements that sought to make Darfur a more autonomous region (Euromove, 2008).
The President of Sudan is Omar al-Bashir. He has been in power since 1989. Even thought there is an international warrant against him, he was re-elected again in 2010. The warrant was issued because al-Bashir has been accused of committing war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur and is considered to be mainly responsible for supporting pro-government rebels and refusing to put a stop to the conflict. Before he became president, he was active in the army. (BBC, 2011).
President al-Bashir is both chief of state and head of government. There is council of Ministers, who are all appointed by the President.
As of now, although there is not an exact figure of the people that have suffered the consequences of this war, it is estimated that the death toll is between 200,000 and 400,000. Besides the massive death toll, an estimate of nearly two million people...