Background of study
Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix.The cervix is the lower part of the uterus and it also called as uterine cervix. The body of the uterus (the upper part) is where a fetus grows.The cervix connects the body of the uterus to the vagina (birth canal). The part of the cervix closest to the body of the uterus is called the endocervix. The part next to the vagina is the exocervix (or ectocervix). The 2 main types of cells covering the cervix are squamous cells (on the exocervix) and glandular cells (on the endocervix). The place these 2 cell types meet is called the transformation zone. Most cervical cancers start in the transformation zone. ).Human papillomaviruses(HPV) are indentified as the major etiology factor in the cervical cancer (American Cancer Society, 2013).
Cervical cancer is a second most common cancer worldwide affecting 1 million women globally in 2005. Not only is it the second most common cancer in women, but also it is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, accounting for over 250,000 deaths in 2005 (Behtash & Mehrdad 2006; WHO 2007).There are 80 % of the 250,000 cervical cancer deaths in 2005 occurred (WHO, 2007).
In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally,before young people become sexually active. (Bray et al., 2005; Peto, Gilham, Fletcher, et al, 2004).
Nowadays the number of cervical cancer patients in the Malaysia increase among females. It is because of the women all around the global doesn’t know the ways to prevent of the cervical cancer. According to Preventive Medicine Journal, they mention that in The Asia-Pacific...