Psychological Testing is the core of Clinical Psychology focusing on the measurement of traits, human abilities, and characteristics. Psychologists primarily use the various tests to measure cognitive, intelligence, and personality traits (Elman, 2000). For instance, the civil service selection system in China is used to recruit officials according to merits rather than political or family association. This played a very important role in Chinese intellectual and social life from the early 650 to 1905 (Elman, 2000). Passing the thorough exams, which were centered on philosophy and classical literature, became a highly sought-after status in a wealthy literati culture in China. This paper will provide information regarding this event’s historical roots, explain why the event is significant, and how the event has influenced the development of psychological testing in the 21st century.
The Event Historical Roots
The roots of the civil service selection system in China originated in the 16th century later known as the Shang Dynasty. During this period education was an honor for an elite few, and it existed for no other reason than for selecting government officials. A system that taught an elite class was created and faithfully maintained, these groups of elite individuals were educated incongruously in the foundation of mass illiteracy (Elman, 2000).
This does not suggest that the government actively offered any form of public education, but it allowed the imperial government to have an active hand in administering multiple levels of the civil service or imperial examinations. This was used for selecting imperial officers. The exams alone contained essay questions that tested the participant’s knowledge on Confucius' teachings. The students were able to prepare for these examinations by registering in the private institution for higher education, or the Shuyuan which prepared...