Intelligence is a difficult term to define, with its meaning open to interpretation. Assessments have been created in an attempt to further define and test levels of intelligence and achievement in test takers. This paper discusses two specific intelligence tests: the ACER Test of Reasoning Ability and the Constructive Thinking Inventory. Two achievement instruments, the Basic Achievement Skills Inventory and the Test of Academic Performance, are also discussed. Reliability, validity, normative procedures and bias of each of these assessments is examined, including ethical implications regarding the administration of these exams.
Intelligence is an extremely broad term that contains many different ideas and theories and is open to interpretation. Many intelligence and achievement assessments have been developed in an attempt to gather reliable and valid results that can be used in modern society. These tests are used to determine many different factors of one’s intelligence as well as his placement in important aspects of life such as educational facilities and careers.
Intelligence and achievement assessments, like many other areas of psychology, are often the subject of criticism based on bias and questionable ethics. One of the most important aspects of these examinations is that they are tested frequently and thoroughly to make sure they are reliable, valid, unbiased and timely.
Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability; while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills and talents. According to Cohen and Swerdlik (2007, p. 232) intelligence includes the abilities to “acquire and apply knowledge, reason logically, plan effectively, infer perceptively, make sound judgments and solve problems, grasp and visualize concepts, pay attention, be intuitive, find the right words and thoughts with facility, cope, adjust and make the most of new situations.”...