The uses and manufacture of enzymes
Enzymes are biological catalysts. They are a group of proteins which speed up chemical reactions that are necessary for life. They perform anabolic and catabolic reactions on substrates in a few seconds which will normally take a few years. Enzymes are now not only found to be useful for organisms and cells but also to the industrial production of foods, fabrics and everyday household cleaning.
Enzymes are produced in living cells in organisms. Enzymes are made in animal, plant and micro organisms. There are especially a lot of enzymes in animal digestive systems such as the intestines and stomach. For instance lipases and rennet are taken from the lining in a calf’s stomach to help produce cheeses and milk. Some enzymes are taken from animal organs to use. However most enzymes are made in a process called fermentation in micro organisms. This is first done by culturing the specific micro organism in their optimum conditions. These micro organisms are left to grow until there is enough broth (mixture of cells, enzymes and nutrients).The broth is then filtrated and purified. The enzymes are extracted through chemical processes such as centrifugation. A solution is then formed of water and dissolved enzymes. The water is evaporated and the enzymes are left in a dry powder form.
Enzymes are used to make sugars in the food industry. An enzyme called Amylase is used to break down starch molecules into maltose molecules for the confectionary industry. This is down by crushing starch containing vegetables such as potatoes and wheat. The Amylase enzyme then makes a sweet syrup out of the mashed potatoes which can be used to make candy. Enzymes can also make another sugar. People that are diabetic or do not wish to eat too much sugar when eating desserts and confectionary may want to eat fructose instead. Fructose is much sweeter than other sugars but cannot be found naturally in fruits. An enzyme called isomerase changes glucose...