Biological: Neuroscience- How body & brain enable emotions, memories, & sensory experiences
Evolutionary- how natural selection of traits has promoted survival of genes
Behavioral Genetics- How our genes & environment influence our individual differences
Psychodynamic: How behavior springs from unconscious drives & conflicts
Behavioral: How we learn observable responses
Cognitive: How we encode, process, store, & retrieve info
Social-Cultural: How behavior & thinking vary across situations & cultures.
Neurotransmitters- Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.
Dopamine- Influences movement, learning, attention, & emotion
Serotonin- Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
Norepinephrine- Helps control alertness & arousal
Acetylcholine- Enables muscle action, learning, & memory
-Infancy (to 1 year)- Trust vs. Mistrust; if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
-Toddlerhood (1to 3 years)- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt; toddlers learn to exercise their will and do things for themselves, doubt their abilities
-Preschool (3 to 6 years)- initiative vs. guilt; Learn to initiate tasks & carry out plans, feel guilty about efforts to be independent
-Elementary school (6 to puberty)- competence vs. inferiority; learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or feel inferior
-Adolescence (teen into 20s)- Identity vs. role confusion; Work at refining sense of self by testing roles & integrating them to form single identity, or become confused about who they are
-Young adulthood (20s to early 40s)- Intimacy vs. isolation; Struggle to form close relationships & gain capacity for intimate love, or feel socially isolated
-Middle Adulthood (40s to 60s)- Generativity vs. stagnation; People discover a sense of contributing to the world, or feel lack of purpose
-Late Adulthood (late 60s & up)- Integrity vs. despair; reflecting on life, may feel...