Cancer – Leukaemia
Cancer is a generic term defined as a disease, in which a group of abnormal cells grow and multiply uncontrollably by disregarding the normal rules of cell division (WHO). The human body is made up of trillions of living cells (NIH). The normal cells within the human body are constantly subject to signals that determine whether the cell should divide, differentiate into another cell or die completely. In the early life of an individual, normal body cells are continuously dividing in order to maintain their growth and development, though, once reaching the adult stage, most cells begin to divide only to replace worn-out or dying cells and to repair injuries. Cancer does not refer to only one disease but in fact, there are wide ranges of cancer types, usually named for the organ or cell type of the primary cancer (Cancer Australia). These are grouped into several broad categories, including:
Carcinoma – cancer forming in the skin or tissues that line or cover internal organs; i.e melanoma
Sarcoma – cancer forming in the bones, fats, muscles, blood vessels or connective tissues; i.e osteosarcoma
Lymphoma and Myeloma – cancer forming in cells of the immune system; i.e Hodgkin lymphoma/Multiple myeloma
Central nervous system cancer – cancer forming in the brain or spinal cord; i.e glioma
Leukaemia – cancer forming in tissues that produce blood cells such as the bone marrow; chronic lymphocytic leukaemia
Despite the four types of leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia is regarded as the most common type of leukaemia occurring within adults and those over the age of 55 years. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, or often known as CLL, is a type of leukaemia that occurs along the lines of a lymphoid stem cells that forms into a lymphoblast cell and then forming to B-lymphocytes (produces antibodies to fight infection), T-lymphocytes (help B-cells to fight infection) and natural killer cells that attack cancer cells and bacteria. CLL develops...