“School’s journey to effectiveness begins with the presence of a leader, who has a vision for the school and its students, doing an instructional audit, implementing staff development, stressing the need for good quality classroom instruction, and working hard to improve the school” - Stringfield and Teddlie (1988).
In this new era, education has transformed and developed fundamentally as a result of cultural, social, political and technological changes. Education is under rigorous investigation by public and private interests who question the system’s ability to accomplish its goals of teaching basic skills, inculcating values, preventing dropouts, and producing a dynamic workforce. Such a huge responsibility requires big commitments to fulfilling the high expectations. Nurturing and educating the new generation have been assigned to the educational systems. Today, educational administration means: leadership, directing, reform and change. Therefore, accomplishment to high level ambition of education in each society, demand renovation, restructuring and innovative thinking in management of educational systems are tasks for educational leaders such as school rectors and administrators. Educational administration either in supervision and monitoring of financial and official affairs, in education or others that involving directly with development and implementation of educational program, have responsibility and tasks in achievement of essential objectives of educational administration as named facilitating teaching-learning process.
School leadership can improve teaching and learning by shaping organisational structures, school climate and teacher practices. Moreover, school leadership can improve equal opportunities by collaborating with other schools and local communities. (OECD 2008, Improving school leadership:Policy and Practice, Copenhague Conference)
In 2005, a year-long study conducted by Caliper, a Princeton, New Jersey-based management...