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Each year there are approximately 9,000 new cases of testicular cancer in the United States (Sachdeva, 2011). Generally testicular cancer accounts for only 1% of all neoplasms in men, however, it is the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 15 and 35 years (Huether & McCance, 2011 p. 825); African American men only represent 3% of patients, whereas 90% of them are Caucasian (Woodward, Sohaey, O'Donoghue & Green, 2002 p. 2). 95% of testicular cancers are germ cell tumors (GCTs) and arise from the spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules (Woodward, Sohaey, O'Donoghue & Green, 2002 p. 1).
There are several predisposing factors that may put some men at a higher risk for testicular cancer; these include a family history- highest among siblings, a history of Crytorchidism- the incomplete descent of the scrotum, history of testicular cancer, and Klinefelter’s syndrome (Bosl & Motzer, 1997 p. 1). Klinefelter’s syndrome is when most cells have an extra X chromosome and it can affect different stages of physical, language and social development. Infertility is one of the most common symptoms. Many patients with testicular carcinoma have higher concentration of antisperm antibodies in their serum and approximately 25% have defects in spermatogenesis. Therefore many unsuspected testis tumors may be found during an infertility work-up ("Klinefelter," 2011).
It is thought that intratubular germ cell neoplasia is the precursor for most GCTs (Woodward, Sohaey, O'Donoghue & Green, 2002 p. 6). Although the exact cause is unknown, the most accepted theory of GCTs development involves an initiating event that can cause the cells to undergo abnormal division. This theory spectacles that genetics as well as the environment play a major role in the development, however the significance of these factors is uncertain (Tavora, 2011 p. 1).
Testicular cancer can be broadly classified...