B. F. Skinner American Psychologists
Of all of the American psychologists, B. F. Skinner was the most influential and focused on radical behavior. He developed the theory operant conditioning. The theory of operant conditioning is behavior will increase if followed by positive reinforcement, but will decrease by applying punishment or thus learning by consequences. His believed the only scientific approach to psychology was through studied behaviors or subjective mental processes. He disagreed with the minds existence being separate from the body, but he did not disagree with the existence of thoughts.
Skinner’s concept of punishment in an educational setting as with other issues believes that educators cannot seem to completely agree on the most effective way to discipline students in various situations. To be effective the only behaviors that should be punished are the behaviors that one wished to extinguish, and not punish for not doing what should be done.
The theory behind Skinner’s thoughts on positive reinforcement was to produce desired behaviors, that is individuals work harder and learn faster when rewarded for doing the right thing, rather than being punished for doing something wrong. He developed a system of four kinds of reinforcement:
1. Tangible: Reward the student with items such as certificates, posters or candy to students with the ability to conform.
2. Activity: Rewards are implemented for the students having special behavior problems, or take a different approach by offering the student a deal. Example: If he or she exhibits except able behavior, they may study with a friend.
3. Graphic: This reinforcement focuses on promoting good behavior by having the teacher use charts, stickers, or smiley faces to encourage except able classroom behavior.
4. Social: Social reinforcement helps to promote and encourage good behavior by including comments, facial or verbal expressions, and gestures.
B.F. Skinners theory of...