Bauhaus is a school of art and design which is lead by Walter Gropius in Weimar in 1919 and closed by the Nazis in 1933. After successfully move to Dessau in 1925 and Berlin in 1932, although the school opened period is quite short life but it was the most famous art school of the 20th century. The Bauhaus philosophy is centered on the functionality of the design and playing a main idea of combining art, craftsmanship and technology. Bauhaus design can be find in many categories and there are furniture, architecture, graphic design and more. The focus of this essay will be the graphic design of Bauhaus which is the layout design and typography. Graphic design is the most universal of all of the arts. It is a visual communication by a combination of text and image to form advertisement, poster, book, magazine and etc. In this essay, the influences of the new graphic design idea which is emerged from the Bauhaus will be discussed.
The Bauhaus, figure 1, is influenced by the World War One and rejected the idea of the past and accepts the age of the machine. The origin of the Bauhaus is start from the School of Art and Craft opened in Weimar. The building is design by first headmaster, Henry Van de Velde. During the First World War, however, his status because of he was Belgian, makes him cannot continuing to be the principal and he suggest an architect, Walter Gropius, figure 2, a leader of Deutsches Werkbund movement, to continue it. In 1919, the School of art and craft combined with Weimar Art Academy and becomes the Bauhaus. [Anon, Answer.com, 2010, Online]
Furthermore, the Bauhaus is base on the principle of art should meet the needs of society due to German lose in the war and in monetary difficulties and economics problems led to runaway inflation, which is bankrupted the middle classes. [Anon, Iconic Interiors, 2009, Online] Besides, the Bauhaus combined the role of artisan, craftsman and technology for the benefit of...