About the origin of the name Roma several hypotheses have been
advanced. The most important are the following:
From Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the
same root as the Greek verb ??? (rhèo) and the Latin verb ruo, which both
From the Etruscan word ruma, whose root is *rum- "teat", with possible
reference either to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately
named twins Romulus and Remus, or to the shape of the Palatine and
From the Greek word ??µ? (rhome), which means strength.
Main articles: History of Rome and Timeline of Rome history
Main article: Founding of Rome
There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area
from approximately 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger
debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites. Evidence of stone
tools, pottery and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human
presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from
pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the
future Roman Forum. While some archaeologists argue that Rome was indeed
founded in the middle of the 8th century BC (the date of the tradition),
the date is subject to controversy. However, the power of the well
known tale of Rome's legendary foundation tends to deflect attention from
its actual, and much more ancient, origins.
Legend of the founding of Rome
Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus.
Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain
the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth. The most
familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths,
is the story of Romulus and Remus, the twins who were suckled by a shewolf. They decided to build a city, but after an argument, Romulus
killed his brother. According to the Roman annalists, this...